Policies, measures and actions on climate change and
environmental protection in the context of COVID-19 recovery.
- Emergency measures in the short term (a few months to one year) to address concerns that have directly emerged from the COVID-19 pandemic and may include forced action.
- Socioeconomic measures in the medium term (one to a few years) with an environmental and climate focus to “build back better” from COVID-19, and usually involves planned, intentional action.
- Paradigm shifts and measures in the long term (more than a few years to a few decades) toward redesigning current socioeconomic and sociocultural systems to be sustainable and resilient.
1.Climate mitigation measures
OthersRecoveryThe National Environmental Policy's objective:
Environmental sustainability will always be a central objective in determining Myanmar’s economic and social development strategies, which will prioritise low-carbon and green economy pathways, through responsible investment and partnerships with the private sector and civil society.Contact Environmental Conservation Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation
Transition to renewable energyRecoveryNational Environmental Policy:
Sustainable and renewable energy for the needs of people and economic development in Myanmar will be secured and efficiently utilized through the use of existing technology and innovations in the generation, storage, supply and use of energy.Contact Environmental Conservation Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation
Transition to renewable energyRecoveryINDC (Energy Target):
One of energy targets in Myanmar's INDC is to increase the 9.4 GW hydroelectric power within limits of technical limits of technical Hydroelectric potential by 2030 because promotion of renewable energy is a key solution to mitigate climate change.Contact Ministry of Electricity and Energy
Land sectorRecoveryINDC (Forestry Target):
Forestry sector is playing key role particularly in removing GHG in Myanmar. One of two major sector communicating mitigation targets was forestry sector in Myanmar INDC which was submitted to the UNFCCC in Sept 2015. Forest Department under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation set Forestry targets are 1) To increase forest land under Public Protection Forests /Reserved Forests to 30% of the country land area and 2) Protected Areas to 10% respectively by 2030.Reference Myanmar's INDC (2015) and NDC update (2020) (Draft)Contact Forest Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation
Land sectorRecoveryNDC (FOLU (Forestry) Target):
Myanmar is preparing to submit its updated NDC by 2020 due to a fifth year after INDC. One of two major sectors communicating mitigation targets was forestry sector in Myanmar INDC which was submitted to the UNFCCC in Sept 2015.
The Forest Department set FOLU (forestry) targets: 1) To mitigate GHG emission by reducing deforestation by 50% by 2030 as the conditional target and 2) 25% as the unconditional target.
It can assist to achieve zero deforestation by 2045 while also considering other activities and other non-CO2 gases to reduce emissions. Because forest are the main reservior for CO2 removal of the world.Reference Myanmar's NDC update (2020) (7th Draft) being prepared by Environmental Conservation Department with technical support of UNPE, WWF, UNDP, and GGGI.Contact Forest Department and Environmental Conservation Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation
Transition to renewable energyRecoveryRenewable Energy:
A total of 1060MW of solar energy was recently tendered by the Ministry of Electricity and EnergyContact DEPP, Ministry of Electricity and Energy
Household sectorRecoveryINDC (Energy Target):
In the context of cobenifits, there is a mitigation contribution target "To distribute 260,000 efficient cook stoves between 2016 and 2031" by the Dry Zone Greening Department under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation in order to reduce GHG emission reduction and deforestation by saving 40% fuel wood use for cooking with promotion of the use of improved energy efficient cook-stoves.Contact Dry Zone Greening Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation
Industry sectorRecoveryINDC (Energy Target: Energy Efficiency):
To mitigate GHG emissions in rapidly developing industrial production sector by improving energy efficiency within the Myanmar industry, focusing on the implementation of energy management systems compatible with the international standard ISO50001, energy system optimization (to realize a 20% electricity saving potential by 2030 of the total forecast electricity consumption).Contact Ministry of Planning, Finance, and Industry
Sustainable transportationRecoveryPolicy tools: Myanmar Climate Change Policy, Strategy, and Master Plan:
Policy guidance is to achieve resilient and low carbon energy, transport and industrial systems to sustainably support inclusive and sustainable development and economic growth, by 2030.
Contact Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation, Ministry of Electricity and Energy, Ministry of Transport and Communications, Ministry of Information's
Sustainable transportationResponseManagement to prevent COVID 19 importation:
The Government of Myanmar prohibited domestic and international flight and use of public vehicles to prevent the spread of COVID. The minimized use of various forms of transport resulted in the avoiding GHG emissions, many meetings were conducted online, E-Mobility and safe mass transportation will be something Government of Myanmar need to explore. Further Extension of Effective Period of Temporary Measures to Prevent Importation of COVID-19 to Myanmar Through Air Travel has been extended up to 31 August 2020.Reference https://www.motc.gov.mm/Contact Ministry of Transport and Communications
Land sectorRecoveryEnhancing GHG removal with forest plantation in Dry Zone:
The Dry Zone Greening Department under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation is mandated to implement four main tasks: Conservation of remaining natural forests by forest boundary repair, building guard house, setting warning signboards, assignment of forest guards, patrolling the area to protect grazing, illegal cutting, encroaching, sivilculture operation to enhance natural regeneration and fire protection in 3 regions, 13 districts and 57 townships, covering 21.557 million acres of dry land forests until. Since late 2000, it covers 3 regions, 12 districts and 54 townships (excluding Gangaw District), covering 20.17 million acres of dry land forests. By following the Myanmar Reforestation and Rehabilitation Programme(Myanmar Reforestation and Forest Rhabilitation Plan ), the Dry Zone Greening Department is planning to establish 29276.47 Ac of village supply forest plantation and 10700 Ac of watershed plantation, 11800 Ac of mountain greening plantation, other 6600 Ac, and during 2017 - 2026.Contact Dry Zone Greening Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation
Land sectorRecoveryConservation and protection in Dry Zone:
Among 14 States and Regions, and Nay Pyi Taw Council Estate, three Regions: Sagaing, Mandalay, and Magway are located in low and flat land with extreme temparture of 47Ċ approximately. Severe drought and less rainfall are major threats to community, agriculture, and forestry due to climate change.Contact Dry Zone Greening Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation
Household sectorRecoveryMinimzing deforestation through households:
The Dry Zone Greening Department is encouraging utilization of alternative fuel in place of fuel wood and minimizing the fuelwood use by 1) delivering efficient cook stoves, 2) developing model villages, 3) conducting extension activities, 4) establishing extension and education centers, 5) encouraging use of agricultural residues and briquettes.Contact Dry Zone Greening Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation
Land sectorRecoveryIncreasing forest cover and GHG removal through forest plantation: The Forest Department establishes different types of forest plantations in accordance with the Myanmar Reforestation and Forest Rehabilitation Plan (2017-2018 to 2026-2027).Contact Forest Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation,
2.Climate adaptation measures
Agr/food securityRedesignINDC: Adaptation contributions: Agriculture:
Myanmar INDC include adaptations contributions as well by adopting pririty sectors in accordance with NAPA (2012). Implementing climate smart agriculture which can approaches through implementation actions such as legume crops diversification, measures in the agro-forestry sector and systematic control of soil quality and irrigation water.Reference Myanmar's INDCContact Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation
Human settlementsRecoveryThe Myanmar Climate Change Master Plan & The Myanmar Climate Change Strategy: Sustainable Town & City Target:
By 2030, to establish resilient infrastructure and service, inclusive and sustainable cities and town for all to alive, thrive with emphasized the most vulnerable people during and after shocks and are best adapted to the new climatic context.Reference Myanmar Climate Change Master Plan and Myanmar Climate Change StrategyContact Department of Urban and Housing Development, Ministry of Construction
Agr/food securityRecoveryThe Myanmar Climate Change Master Plan & The Myanmar Climate Change Strategy:
By 2030,to achieve climate-smart agriculture, fisheries and livestock systems that will maintain productivity and growth and support the livelihoods of dependent communities and household .
Implementing climate-smart agricultural practices can withstand changes in climate and contribute to the reduction of GHG emissions in agricultural sector.
Reference Myanmar Climate Change Master Plan and Myanmar Climate Change StrategyContact Department of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Research, Department of Rural Development, DOP, Department of Agriculture, Land Management and Statistics, Agriculture Mechanization Department, Irrigation and Water Utilization Management Department, , Department of Fisheries, Livestock, Breeding and Veterinary Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation
Agr/food securityResponseCERP's Goal 4.1.2.b: Food Security Sector:
GAD under the MOHA is taking responsibility to provide emergency rations through community-based food banks and associations during COVID19. Food banks could be developed as an adaptation strategy to food security and agricultureContact GAD, MOHA
HealthResponseCERP goal6: Healthcare Systems Strengthening: Promoting Health Care System:
Recruit more medical staff and volunteers to serve in quarantine centers/facilities.Contact Ministry of Health and Sport
Urban/rural development (energy access etc.)RecoveryEcosystem Based Adaptation:
Environmental Conservation Department as an executing agency is implementing an Urban EBA project "Building Climate Resilience of Urban Systems through Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) in the Asia Pacific region: Myanmar" as a part of regional EBA projet with technical support of UNEP and UN-Habitat and financial support of GEF while 2nd EBA project "Adapting community forestry land scape and associated community livelihoods to a changing climate, in particular an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events" is about to start.Contact Environmental Conservation Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation
GovernanceRecoveryThe National Environmental Policy:
Economic values of environmental services will be recognized and incorporated in development policies so that these values are optimized and maintained to the extent possible.
GovernanceRecoveryNational Environmental Policy:
Institutional and legal frameworks for implementing and enforcing environmental laws and policies will be strengthened through clear definition of rights and responsibilities, and greater collaboration among different institutions within the government at all levels, as well as with non-government stakeholders.
Sustainable finance (public/private)/market mechanisms/carbon pricingRecoveryCarbon Emission Reduction through low carbon technology and energy efficiency:
Environmental Conservation Department undertake as a DNA to implement CDM project in Myanmar. Moreover Environmental Conservation Department is cooperating with Japan to formulate JCM projects by applying low carbon technology, energy efficient technology and following Japan Joint crediting mechanism - JCM programme. Sharing of carbon credit is under negotiation between Japan and Myanmar.
The Environmental Conservation Department under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation is the executing organization for environment and climate change activities in Myanmar leading to climate resilient society with low carbon and sustainable development. It is preparing to develop a national MRV system with coordination and cooperation of UNEP and GGGI in term of technology and GEF in term of financial support. The Environmental Conservation Department, As the National Focal Point for the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement, is also responsible for engaging all line Ministries and Departments to report GHG emissions and sinks.
To supervise the nation's environment and climate change actions, since 2016, the National Environmental Conservation and Climate Change Central Committee (National Environmental Conservation and Climate Change Central Committee) has been established with six working committes including climate change mitigation and adaptation working committee.
Environmental Conservation Department is composed with eleven divisions and fiften State, Regional, and Nay Pyi Taw Council Estate Environmental Conservation Department offices. Not District and Township level Environmental Conservation Department offices are under establishment.
OthersRecoveryREDD plus programme:
To meet the nation's commitment to the UNFCCC in 1994, Kyoto Protocol in 2003, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation is implementing the Conservation of Biodiversity in Myanmar-including Strengthened Management of Wetlands and Protected Areas and establishment of demonstration site on adoption of CF and agroforestry practices in Forest Rehabilitation to support Myanmar Reforestation and Forest Rhabilitation Plan and REDD+ readiness activities.Reference http://www.myanmar-redd.org/Contact Forest Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation,
Sustainable finance (public/private)/market mechanisms/carbon pricingResponseCERP Goal 1. Promoting the use of Mobile Financial Payments/E-commerce :
Negotiate with private financial institutions to give more flexibility related to interest and mortgage payments for households that are most negatively affected by the COVID-19 pandemic:
These measures could be replicated for promoting low carbon growthContact Central Bank of Myanmar
Sustainable finance (public/private)/market mechanisms/carbon pricingResponseCERP Goal 5.1.1.b:
The Ministry of Commerce and the Ministry of Transport and Communications are taking responsibilities of ensuring e-commerce and social- commerce sales only accept electronic money through bank transfers or mobile payments or card payments. E-Commerce could be an innovative idea to reduce economic vulnerability.Contact Ministry of Commerce and Ministry of Transport and Communications
Sustainable finance (public/private)/market mechanisms/carbon pricingResponseCERP's Goal 5: Promoting Innovative Products & Platforms:
The Central Bank of Myanmar - CBM encourages innovation of mobile applications and use of available mobile payment services (including, but not limited, to KBZ Pay, CB Pay, Wave Money, M Pitesan, OK Dollar, etc.). E-banking could also be made for insurance mechanisms so that paying annual premiums are easy. The GOM itself uses mobile payments whenever it is feasible. These actions could be replicated in cases of climate induced disasters as well to transfers funds quickly.Contact Central Bank of Myanmar
Citizens’ lives (behaviour change) / employmentRecoveryCERP's Goal 5:
CERP's goal 5 is alternately supporting local commities of national races and ethnic groups in the context of resilient and adaptive capacity to not only COVID-19 but also climate change impacts. According to CERP's goal 5.1.2.d, the Ministry of Commerce and the Ministry of Transport and Communications are responsible to initiating a ‘Challenge Grant’ competition amongst Myanmar’s ICT/e- commerce community for innovative ideas to combat COVID-19.
Innovation could also be an important action to deal with climate change through adaptation and mitigation actions.Contact Ministry of Commerce and Ministry of Transport and Communications
GovernanceResponseImplementation of Myanmar's COVID19 Economic Relief Plan-CERP:
Sectoral ministries have to implement their mandatery and cross cutting plans and action plans by adopting the prehensive economic stimulus plan “Overcoming as One: COVID-19 Economic Relief Plan-CERP”.
The plan is being implemented to meets its seven main goals:1) to improve macroeconomic environment through monetary stimulus, 2) to ease the impact on the private sector through imporvements to investment, trade and banking sectors, 3) to ease the impact on labourers and workers, 4) to ease the impact on households, 5) to promote innovative products and platforms, 6) to strengthen health care systems, and 7) to increase access to COVID-19 response financing (including contigency funds).Contact Ministry of Planning, Finance, and Industry
GovernanceRecoveryAwareness and capacity building in Education sector:
Strengthened education, awareness and technological systems to foster a climate responsive society and human capital to design and implement climate-resilient and low-carbon development solutions for inclusive and sustainable development.Reference http://www.moe.gov.mm/en/?q=content/%E1%80%99%E1%80%BC%E1%80%94%E1%80%BA%E1%80%99%E1%80%AC%E1%80%94%E1%80%AD%E1%80%AF%E1%80%84%E1%80%BA%E1%80%84%E1%80%B6%E1%80%95%E1%80%8A%E1%80%AC%E1%80%9B%E1%80%B1%E1%80%B8%E1%80%9E%E1%80%AF%E1%80%90%E1%80%B1%E1%80%9E%E1%80%94%E1%80%A6%E1%80%B8%E1%80%85%E1%80%AE%E1%80%B8%E1%80%8C%E1%80%AC%E1%80%94Contact Department of Education Research, Planning and Training, Ministry of Education
4.Other environmental measures
Measures related to ecosystem services / biodiversity / land use / agricultureRecoveryNational Environmental Policy - NEP (2019):
The NEP guides sectoral ministries, NGOs, INGOs, and CSOs to address the environment and natural resource management by recognizing the critical roles of Myanmar’s natural capital and ecosystem services in the country’s society and economy.Reference https://https://www.ecd.gov.mm/
Waste management and Circular economy / sustainable production and consumptionRecoveryWaste Management:
Waste management is an important aspect of reducing and avoiding GHG emission in waste sector in Myanmar. To address a range of global challenges, including public health, climate change, poverty, food security, resource efficacy, sustainable cities and production and consumption, Promulgating Myanmar National Waste Management Strategy and Master Plan (2018-2030) has been developed in 2018. Development and implementation of the holistic and integrated waste management strategy was based on principles of inclusiveness, zero waste, zero emissions and circular economy to achieve a greener, cleaner and healthier environment in Myanmar.
Reference https://www.unenvironment.org/ietc/resources/policy-and-strategy/national-waste-management-strategy-and-master-plan-myanmar-2018-2030Contact Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation, Environmental Conservation Department
Measures related to ecosystem services / biodiversity / land use / agricultureRecoveryThe Myanmar Climate Change Strategy and Master Plan (2018 - 2030):
The Myanmar Climate Change Strategy and the Myanmar Climate Change Master Plan have been developed to ensure and strengthen management of natural resources and to enhance the resilience of its biodiversity and ecosystem services that support social and economic development and to deliver carbon sequestration by 2030.
OthersRecoveryNational Environmental Policy - EMP (2019):
International cooperation will be sought to strengthen environmental conservation and sustainable development in Myanmar, and to address regional and global challenges, through bilateral and multilateral agreements, experience sharing and implementation arrangements.
COVID19 recovery and climate change adaptationRecoveryMembership of NDC Partnership:
Myanmar become a member of NDC partnership on 16 June 2020. As a member, Myanmar is preparing to send a support letter to NDCP to recruit an economic advisor in the context of climate actions in recovery planning in response to the COVID-19 global pandemic which is inline with NDC implementation.Reference https://ndcpartnership.orgContact Environmental Conservation Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation and DOP, Ministry of Planning, Finance, and Industry
COVID19 recovery and climate change adaptationResponseMyanmar COVID19 Economic Relief Plan:
To overcome the immediate negative impact of COVID-19, the Ministry of Planning, Finance and Industry has issued a comprehensive economic stimulus plan “Overcoming as One: COVID-19 Economic Relief Plan-CERP” having 7 Goals, 10 Strategies, 36 Action Plans and 78 Actions, covering a broad range of extraordinary fiscal and monetary measures, combined with a set of human-focused and common-sense policy responses in April 2020.
The plan is designed to meet the current exigencies Myanmar faces in ways that reaffirm our long-term strategic direction. It consists of policies and proposals that are as realistic and implementable. The CERP is scrupulous in matching outlays with financing, whether this is via budgetary reallocation, innovative private-sector partnerships, or through arrangements with multilateral financial institutions and other development partners.Contact DOP, Ministry of Planning, Finance, and Industry
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