Policies, measures and actions on climate change and
environmental protection in the context of COVID-19 recovery.
- Emergency measures in the short term (a few months to one year) to address concerns that have directly emerged from the COVID-19 pandemic and may include forced action.
- Socioeconomic measures in the medium term (one to a few years) with an environmental and climate focus to “build back better” from COVID-19, and usually involves planned, intentional action.
- Paradigm shifts and measures in the long term (more than a few years to a few decades) toward redesigning current socioeconomic and sociocultural systems to be sustainable and resilient.
1.Climate mitigation measures
Transition to renewable energyResponse Recovery RedesignLong-Term Strategy for Carbon Neutrality: serves as a roadmap based on a comprehensive analysis and modelling of all relevant economic sectors. It outlines priority mitigation actions for each sector to achieve the country’s goal of a carbon neutral economy in 2050. The strategy largely builds on existing commitments of the Royal Government of Cambodia and proposes a trajectory consistent with the Updated Nationally Determined Contribution. It takes into consideration the balance between emissions reductions, economic growth, social justice, and climate resilience. Economic analysis shows that the investments to be made under this strategy have the potential to create 449,000 additional jobs, and deliver an additional 2.8% of annual GDP growth by 2050 for Cambodia. However, continued efforts need to be put in for addressing the forest sustainability and land use; decarbonizing the power sector and pursueing higher energy efficiency, as well as promoting low-carbon agriculture, industrial processes, and waste management. The LTS4CN modelling suggests that Cambodia could achieve carbon neutrality in 2050 with the FOLU sector providing a total carbon sink of 50 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MtCO2e). The energy sector is expected to be the highest emitter in 2050 at 28 MtCO2e, followed by the agriculture sector at 19 MtCO2e. The waste and IPPU sectors are projected to emit 1.6 and 1.2 MtCO2e, respectivelyContact National Council for Sustainable Development, Department of Climate Change
Transition to renewable energyResponse Recovery RedesignThe Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
It is a vital mitigation measure of the international market mechanism under the Kyoto protocol 2002. The Ministry of Environment (head of Designate National Authority-DNA) has issued the Letter of Approval (LoA) to 13 CDM projects (both CDM and CDM PoA) and played an important role to coordinate with potential private sectors, intended to apply. Currently, some companies still implement their activities following the CDM criteria, some companies have stopped following the CDM criteria and few companies have stopped implementing.Contact Department of Climate Change, Ministry of Environment
OthersResponse Recovery RedesignLow Carbon Development Partnership:
The Ministry of Environment of Cambodia and the Ministry of Environment of Japan through the Japanese embassy to Cambodia signed an agreement on 11 April 2014 to officially implement the Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM) in Cambodia. It is designed to promote investment and deployment of low carbon technologies, products, systems, services, infrastructure and capacity building to achieve low carbon and sustainable growth in Cambodia, establish a Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM); to verify reductions or removals from the mitigation projects including the forestry sector under the JCM can be used as a part of Japan’s internationally pledged greenhouse gases mitigation efforts and Cambodia’s nationally appropriate mitigation actions. The JCM starts its operation as the non-tradable credit type mechanism. Both sides continue consultation for the transition to the tradable credit type mechanism and reach a conclusion at the earliest possible timing, taking account of implementation of the JCM..This partnership covers the period from the signing of the document for verified emission reductions or removals from the JCM projects to be made until 2030. Both sides consider possible extension of the above-mentioned period and reach a conclusion by 2030. Currently, we have 6 JCM model projects implementing their activities in Cambodia namely: 1. Introduction of High Efficiency LED Lighting Utilizing Wireless Network; 2. Introduction of Ultra-Lightweight Solar Panel for Power Generation at International School; 3. Introduction of 1MW Solar owner Power System and High Efficiency Centrifugal Chiller in Large Shopping Mall; 4. Energy Saving by Inverters for Distribution Pumps in Water Treatment Plan; 5. Hybrid Power Plant Project with Biomass and Solar Power in Kandal Province; and 6. Provincial Water Supply and Sanitation Project.Reference https://www.iges.or.jp/en/search-result?search_api_fulltext_=Joint+Crediting+Mechansim&items_per_page=10Contact Department of Climate Change, Ministry of Environment
Industry sectorResponse Recovery RedesignNationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA)
It is an international mitigation mechanism to reduce the GHG in various sector. The Department of Climate Change is an secretariat of the Ministry of Environment to coordinate, screen/review the documents submitted and issue the letter of endorsement (LoA) to public institutions/ministry and private companies to implement their activities and submit to NAMA facility to find the partner for implementing. So far, the Ministry of Environment has issued the letter of endorsement (LoA) to the Ministry of Industry, Science, Technology and Innovation (MISTI) the implement the project on Energy Efficiency in Garment Factory and GERES on sustainable charcoal production.Contact Department of Climate Change, Ministry of Environment
Transition to renewable energyResponse Recovery RedesignGold Standard and Verified Carbon Standard
There are many private companies, organizations, and others have applied for gold standard and Verified Carbon Standard to mitigate the GHG emission into atmosphere. This mechanism has not been under the control of the Ministry of Environment to coordinate. The Department of Climate Change intends to coordinate, facilitate, collect, and archive all date and information from relevant stakeholders. It is expected to become a central data management center for climate change mitigation activities in the country.
Transition to renewable energyRedesignCambodia Power Development Master Plan (2022-2040): utlines plans to boost the nation’s network, inject more renewable energies into the grid, push energy efficiency measures and deliver affordable and reliable electricityContact NCSD
Building sectorRedesignCambodia Energy Efficiency Plan (2022): first dedicated policy on energy efficiency and establishes the enabling framework for future developments in this area. The Policy sets an ambitious national target for the reduction of energy consumption of at least 19 per cent by 2030 in relation to a scenario without energy efficiency.Contact NCSD
Household sectorRedesignNational Cooling Action Plan (2023): a goal is to realize Cambodia's long-term development vision in building a sustainable, green, clean, and low-carbon society based on climate-friendly and energy efficient technology in the cooling sector.
2.Climate adaptation measures
Adaptation planningResponse Recovery RedesignNational Adaptation Plan (NAP) Financing Framework and Implementation Plan
The NAP process aims to increase the possibilities for Cambodia to access additional adaptation financing, NAP Financing Framework and Implementation Plan has been developed. The framework gives both short-term suggestions for 40 priority climate change actions as well as medium-and long term recommendations. These include among others, to pursue approaches sector-wide or programmatic approaches rather than small-sized projects, to strengthen project and budgeting capacities, to further develop a national repository on climate science/knowledge/development, to further strengthen sectoral coordination, to continue to mainstream climate proofing into ministries' budgets, and increasingly integrating gender dimensions in climate responses.Contact National Council for Sustainable Development
OthersResponseUnderstanding Public Perceptions of Climate Change in Cambodia (Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP)
The Ministry of Environment is conducted a KAP survey on Cambodian public perceptions of climate change, using a nationally representative key informants including journalists, NGO staff and government officials. The report aims to provide comprehensive information for all stakeholders—NGOs, Development Partners, public and private sectors—in developing their response programs to help Cambodians adapt to climate change. The findings are essential for all actors to make smarter investments in addressing climate change, particularly develop policies and programs that empower poor and marginalized communities to adapt to and recover from climate hazards.Contact National Council for Sustainable Development
Adaptation planningResponse Recovery RedesignMainstreaming Climate Resilience into Development Planning
Climate change priorities have been articulated in the NAPA and in the CCCSP. Entry points for mainstreaming climate change into sub-national planning scales have been identified. These include the Strategic Framework for Decentralisation and De-concentration under the National Programme for Sub-National Democratic Development, and the development of a guideline for mainstreaming climate change into sub-national planning. To continue support the implementation to cover other activities such as accreditation of the Adaptation Fund and Green Climate Fund, research and knowledge management, capacity development, mainstreaming of climate change across sectors at different levels, operation of M&E and data management systems, and launching some high priority projects/programmes in key sectors identified in the Climate Change Action Plans. Initial priority would be given to adaptation activities and research and learning, but its main objective will be to scale up success cases and to continue mainstreaming climate change into national and sub-national programmes.Contact The National Council for Sustainable Development
OthersResponseThe national Vulnerability index has been updated for the years of 2020 and 2021.Reference https://ncsd.moe.gov.kh/standard_report_visualize_final_report/d3_c_report/vulnerability?portal_id=16751&standard_report=10706Contact Dr. Hak Mao, Director, Department of Climate Change, National Council for Sustainable Development
Urban/rural development (energy access etc.)ResponseEnhance the food production in the local community to attract the tourists
On 31st July 2020, Ministry of Environment organized a Forum on Natural Resource Protection and Conservation 2020 with the participation from stakeholders such as representative from Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Economic and Finance, Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries, Ministry of Rural Development, Ministry of Health, Sub National Administration, Private Sectors, Non-Government Organizations, Tourism Community and Natural Protected Area Community in total 250 participants. The objectives of the forum are to: 1- Discuss on the progress, challenges and needs for sustainable management and use of natural resources; 2- Share experience on responses and challenges of tourism service providing in the context of COVID-19; and 3- Expand the potential and create new tourism product in the community by enhancing the local food production complied with quality and standard of tourism standard.Reference https://www.moe.gov.kh/en/index/23755Contact Ministry of Environment, Cambodia
GovernanceResponse Recovery RedesignCambodia Climate Change Strategic Plan (CCCSP) 2014-2023:
It is developed to make Cambodia towards a green, low-carbon, climate-resilient, equitable, sustainable and knowledge-based society. It is also designed to reduce vulnerability of most vulnerable groups and critical (natural and societal) systems to climate change impacts, to shift towards a green development path by promoting low-carbon development and technologies, and to promote awareness and participation of the public in climate change response action.Contact The National Council for Sustainable Development
OthersResponseCambodia's Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) update
Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) set out each country’s approach to reduce emissions and adapt to a changing climate, as part of the Paris Agreement signed in COP 21 in Paris in 2015. Since COP 21, countries have been invited to confirm these intentions by ratifying the Paris Agreement. Reporting requirements of Cambodia invited to submit updated and more ambitious NDCs every five years. Information necessary to track progress made in implementing and achieving its nationally determined contribution; A National inventory report; Information on climate change impacts and adaptation is encouraged; and Developing country Parties should provide information on financial, technology transfer and capacity building support needed and received. The Increasing ambition through the NDC process is covering the Mitigation commitment, Adaptation action, finance, Transparency framework, and Governance.Contact Ministry of Environment/National Council for Sustainable Development
OthersResponseCambodia ODA Database Customization and Climate Chang Data Tracking
On 13-14 August 2020 at KEP province, the Council for the Development of Cambodia (CDC), Cambodian Rehabilitation and Development Board of the Council for the Development of Cambodia (CRDB) organized the Consultation workshop on “Cambodia ODA Database Customization and Climate Chang Data Tracking” with the participation of representatives from the Department Climate Change, the National Council for Sustainable Development, Ministry of Environment, and Ministry of Women's Affairs, as well as other key relevant stakeholders. The main objectives of this workshop were 1). To improve the quality of cooperation financing data, especially cross-sectoral financing data recorded in the Cambodia Cooperation Finance Database; 2). Provide orientation on the Cambodia ODA database and inform CRDB new staff members about the important of cross-cutting issues, especially Climate Change, Gender equality and Private sector development and the effort to track the cross-cutting financing for reporting in the annual DCPR; 3). Tracking ODA support to COVID 19 such as impact of COVID-19 on Development Cooperation and implication on ODA support to COVID-19; and 4). Agreed on the needs for system customization, data validation and the next DCPR preparation.Contact The Council for the Development of Cambodia (CDC/CRDB)
4.Other environmental measures
OthersResponseRectangular strategy (RS)
The RS of the government is developed to minimize environmental impacts, enhance the capacity to adapt to climate change, and contribute to reducing the global climate change to ensure sustainable development. It also promote the implementation of measures to prevent and reduce communicable diseases by cooperating with the community and stakeholders to raise awareness on hygiene, food safety, healthcare, effects of chemical products, alcohol and tobacco, and impact of climate change on human health.
Reference http://cnv.org.kh/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Rectangular-Strategy-Phase-IV-of-the-Royal-Government-of-Cambodia-of-the-Sixth-Legislature-of-the-National-Assembly-2018-2023.pdfContact Royal Government of Cambodia
OthersResponse RecoveryNational Strategic Development Plan (NSDP)
The NSDP is designed to meet Cambodia’s commitments to climate change action, including de-carbonization of the economy and alongside measures. It also includes the management of the environment and natural resources, including climate change, is an important issue in terms of sustainability and stability of Cambodia's economic growth and development. The government has also increased its budget allocations for the implementation of the Cambodia climate change projects and programs and provided quality health services encounters inadequate resources constraints, especially human resources and diagnostic capacity and shortage of medicines and medical tools. The NSDP also included Strategic Plan for Gender and Climate Change, Disaster Management and Green Development and a Master Plan on Gender and Climate Change 2013-2022.Contact Royal Government of Cambodia
OthersResponse RecoveryNational Environmental Strategy and Action Plan (NESAP)
Cambodia has taken measures to address and prevent the loss of the natural resources and ecological balance that would compromise the country’s ability in achieving sustainable development and livelihoods for the people, in particular for the vulnerable groups, i.e. women, children, elderly, ethnic minority and handicaps. The formulation and effective implementation of NESAP 2016-2023 are critical for Cambodia to sustain and consolidate the efforts for the development, protection and conservation of the environment and natural resources.Contact Ministry of Environment/National Council for Sustainable Development
OthersResponseEnvironment Sustainability :
Environmental management and climate change have become another challenge for sustainable economic growth and social development in Cambodia due to the current population growth, urbanization, prosperity and aquaculture, as well as the development of transport sector, energy sector and other sectors. Most of the environmental challenges are cross-cutting, requiring coordination between national and sub-national institutions and cooperation with all stakeholders.Contact Ministry of Planning
COVID19 recovery and climate change adaptationResponse RecoveryJoint Statement on food security and nutrition in the context of the COVID-19 in Cambodia
The Council for Agricultural and Rural Development and the Technical Working Group for Social Protection and Food Security and Nutrition signed a joint statement, which appealed to all line ministries, institutions sub-national authorities, development partners, civil society, and the private sector to work with cohesion within each sector. The statement sought technical and financial support for the implementation of the joint priority actions under the Second five-Year Strategy for Food Security and Nutrition (2nd NSFSN) 2019-2023 in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
The joint statement came in response to the Asia and Pacific joint statement released in April 2020 by the regional heads of FAO, UNICEF, WFP and WHO. The regional joint statement offered an important resource to help ensure that nutrition is adequately addressed in the national COVID-19 responses.Contact the Council for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD), Cambodia
OthersResponsePrime Minister Intervention for COVID19 response during the Conference on Hope
The Prime Minister of the Royal Government of Cambodia delivered a speech during the WORLD CONFERENCE ON HOPE with the theme of Restoration and Establishment of Our Nations after world crisis of the COVID19: Global inter-dependency, prosperity, and value. Cambodia has put in place the most drastic and decisive measures to prevent the spread of Covid-19 by dividing it into three battle-fields: First is to prevent the recurrence of the disease into Cambodia; Second is to prevent the spread of the disease in the country; While the last is to treat people infected with Covid-19. To ensure the highest level of efficiency, the government of Cambodia established the National Covid-19 Commission as a joint command to lead, launch, and promote the implementation of all measures.Reference https://pressocm.gov.kh/Contact Office of the Council of Ministers
ResponseOPTIONS FOR REPURPOSING UNSPENT Cambodia Climate Change Alliance (CCCA) 2020 FUNDS TO CONTRIBUTE TO COVID19 RESPONSE: This activity focuses on climate-resilient access to water and hygiene services (water station + continuous hygiene campaign with customers. It is expected to enhance climate-resilient access to drinking water through improved water source and no need to boil water using coal/wood. The project is intended to cover 3 communes / water kiosks, with an estimated 6,000 beneficiaries and 3,000 children (through school program when schools reopen).Contact National Council for Sustainable Development/Ministry of Environment
OthersResponseThe Third National Communication (TNC) of Cambodia has been submitted and it was prepared to continuously meet Cambodia's obligations as a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The report successfully follows the guidelines on national communications provided and introduces useful data and analysis for the design and implementation of the next generation of climate change mitigation and adaptation measures in line with the updated NDC and LTS4CN.Contact Dr. Hak Mao, Director, Department of Climate Change, National Council for Sustainable Development
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