Policies, measures and actions on climate change and
environmental protection in the context of COVID-19 recovery.
- Emergency measures in the short term (a few months to one year) to address concerns that have directly emerged from the COVID-19 pandemic and may include forced action.
- Socioeconomic measures in the medium term (one to a few years) with an environmental and climate focus to “build back better” from COVID-19, and usually involves planned, intentional action.
- Paradigm shifts and measures in the long term (more than a few years to a few decades) toward redesigning current socioeconomic and sociocultural systems to be sustainable and resilient.
1.Climate mitigation measures
Transition to renewable energyResponse Recovery RedesignCoordinate actions within the environmnetal sector and other agencies that promote a energy transition with clean, specifically renewable, energy. We have focsued on guaranteeing environmental protection and seeking the well-being of the population, especially the most vulnerable communities, with a focus on social and economic inclusion and mobility.Contact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
Industry sectorResponse Recovery RedesignEstablish, strengthen, and promote, in coordination with other Federal Public Administrarion agencies, policies and regulatory instruments for the reduction of GHG emissions in strategic sectors. This includes circular economy approach to meet national and international climate change goals.Contact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
Land sectorResponse Recovery RedesignReduce emissions from deforestation and soil degradation, through the promotion of integrated land management. This includes instruments to promote low-carbon and resilient rural development, the conservation and increase of forest carbon stocks, and the equitable distribution of benefits.Contact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
Household sectorResponse Recovery RedesignPromote a sustainable, inclusive, and compact urban development through sustainable mobility and housing. This includes solid waste and wastewater management that reduces greenhouse emissions, and increases the resilience and adaptive capacity of cities and metropolitan areas.Contact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
2.Climate adaptation measures
Adaptation planningResponse Recovery RedesignConsolidate information systems on climate change that support the monitoring, evaluation, and reporting of national goals; as well as identify needs and opportunities for financing, training, technology transfer, and vulnerability reduction.Contact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
Adaptation planningResponse Recovery RedesignStrengthen the evaluation of national climate policy in order to know and improve its efficiency and effectivenessContact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
Agr/food securityResponse Recovery RedesignPromote environmental education and capacities to contribute towards climate action empowerment, including the change in the patterns of production, consumptio,n and occupation of the territory.Contact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
Human settlementsResponse Recovery RedesignStrengthen the co-creation of local capacities togethere with transparency mechanisms within the framework of the National Climate Change System.Contact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
Adaptation planningResponse Recovery RedesignReduce vulnerability and increase the resilience of the social sector, strategic infraestructure and productive systems to the effects of climate change.Reference https://www.gob.mx/cms/uploads/attachment/file/41978/Estrategia-Nacional-Cambio-Climatico-2013.pdfContact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
Adaptation planningResponse Recovery RedesignGuide and accompany the different levels of government in the design and development of policy instruments for adaptation, using a territorial approach based on ecosystems, community vision, bioculturality and nature based soluctions.Contact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
Adaptation planningRedesignCriteria for monitoring and evaluation of climate change adaptation measures.
INECC established a list of criteria for the evaluation of climate change adaptation measures, which was strengthened and validated with key stakeholders. The criteria for design adaptation measures allow planners and decision-makers to formulate measures with a greater probability of success, and to maximize their impact, in terms of reducing vulnerability to climate change, by considering enabling factors and barriers to their implementation. The criteria are:
Climate: This criterion refers to a measure addressing current and/or projected conditions and problematics related, directly or indirectly, to climate change, climate variability, and extreme events, based on available information. The climate criterion guides adaptation measures, since it refers to the condition that is changing and that has adverse effects on the population, strategic infrastructure and ecosystems.
The systemic criterion: This refers to the fact that the site for which a measure is designed is a system in which the elements are interrelated. Considering a “socio-ecosystem” approach allows identifying the positive and negative effects that the implementation of the measure can have on the rest of the system. The systemic approach allows integrated management that considers land, water, climate, biodiversity, as well as the management of environmental services provided by ecosystems. The term socio-ecosystem is used to emphasize that human communities are explicitly considered.
Viability: This criterion refers to the possibility that an adaptation measure can be carried out based on its technical, economic and social attributes, as well as the context in which it is promoted. This element includes the analysis of limitations and opportunities, considering economic, technical or technological, social, cultural, institutional, regulatory and political variables for its implementation, as well as social and environmental safeguards.
Measurability: This stablishes that an adaptation measure must consider a baseline (e.g. assessment of vulnerability to climate change), explicit goals and metrics that facilitate its monitoring and evaluation.
Capacities: This represents the skills, resources, and competencies that people, institutions and communities possess to solve problems and propose strategies in an innovative way that facilitate the modification of unfavorable conditions, in a sustainable way (PNUD, 2009). This criterion seeks that the adaptation measure strengthens the technical, financial, organizational and/or human resources capacities at the community and institutional level.
Local context: This criterion considers those social, economic, cultural, political and environmental characteristics that are present in a specific territory. An adaptation measure is expected to consider that vulnerability is differentiated among social groups of a community.
Governance: it’s a broad notion of participation for decision-making, which is not restricted to the work of the public sector but transcends the generation of networks with different actors and their dynamics of collaboration. This criterion considers gender, age groups, intergenerational justice, indigenous intercultural communities, and populations particularly vulnerable to climate change. Additionally, it is important that an adaptation measure, to be effective, contributes to reducing inequality gaps, particularly gender.
Alignment: This criterion refers to the articulation and congruence that adaptation measures have with territorial planning instruments and international, national and subnational public policy, in order to contribute to the fulfillment of commitments in the matter.
Sustainability: This represents the continuation of benefits from an adaptation measure after completion, considering the probability that they will be continued in the long term. In this sense, they are the net benefits that are likely to withstand risks over time (OECD, 2002). A sustainable measure over time can be considered as one in which its benefits continue after the implementation period, based on the availability of economic, social and institutional resources to continue it.
Distribution of benefits: This focuses on ensuring that the positive effects are distributed in a fair, equitable, inclusive and transparent manner. It is recommended that these benefits include a greater number of people who are in conditions of vulnerability to climate change, so that the gaps in social inequality are not exacerbated and, if possible, reduce them.
Co-benefits: This criterion refers to all those positive effects both anticipated and not expected in the initial objectives of the implementation of the adaptation measure and that affects the improvement of other objectives related to well-being. These positive effects depend on local circumstances, so they may present high uncertainty when replicating adaptation measures (IPCC, 2014b).
These positive effects can be reflected in environmental, social or economic variables, as well as in synergies with mitigation. On the other hand, negative externalities.
Flexibility: This criterion allows reversibility in the measures, in case if they do not respond to the climatic, environmental and social conditions with which they were planned, thereby reducing the social and economic costs of unforeseen circumstances.
No-regret criterion: This refers to measures that can have positive effects regardless of the climate scenario in question, being commonly win-win actions.Reference https://www.gob.mx/cms/uploads/attachment/file/527438/Nota_tecnica_criterios_MyE_Adaptacion__ingles_.pdfContact Instituto Nacional de Ecología y Cambio Climático (INECC) & Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recusos Naturales (SEMARNAT)
Adaptation planningRedesignIndicators for Monitoring and Evaluation of adaptation to climate change in Mexico.
Under the need to build measurement systems that contain common structure and methodology but sensitive to local contexts, 3 types of indicators are proposed. The indicators are:
- Context indicators: These have already been raised by different government institutions in Mexico with a municipal breakdown, and that refer to whether an adaptation measure is appropriate to the circumstances of the site. The information for the indicators or specific is available from secondary sources of web pages of Mexican institutions, which show initial information that allows characterizing the context, socioeconomic, cultural and environmental aspects related to the state and change in the conditions of vulnerability to climate change of the population and territory where the adaptation measure is implemented or will be implemented, with which a first sketch to guide the adaptation process. Also, the indicators seek to know if the design and implementation of an adaptation measure addresses specific problems and is relevant according to the social, economic, cultural, political and environmental conditions of the territory.
- Management indicators: These indicators seek to know the fulfillment of the administrative progress, of the processes and of the programmatic activities of the execution of an adaptation measure and 34 indicators are proposed.
- Impact indicators: These indicators determine the main results of the adaptation measure in terms of the reduction of the conditions of vulnerability, and the transformations generated. 34 indicators are proposed.Reference https://www.gob.mx/cms/uploads/attachment/file/604477/79_2020_Nota_Teecnica_Indicadores_ME_Adaptacion.pdfContact Instituto Nacional de Ecología y Cambio Climático (INECC) & Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recusos Naturales (SEMARNAT)
Adaptation planningResponseMexico’s first Adaptation Communication. According to the Article 7.10 of the Paris Agreement and Decision 9/CMA.1 of the UNFCCC; Mexico presented an integrated document to share its progress, challenges, and opportunities in adaptation measures; taking into account the national circumstances, institutional agreements, and legal adaptation framework and priorities, including information on gender-responsive action, traditional and Indigenous Peoples knowledge.Contact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Mexico
Citizens’ lives (behaviour change) / employmentResponse Recovery RedesignPromote informed, organized, and culturally relevant social participation imechanisms on climate change and land use, particularly among indigenous and Afro-Mexican people, women, and youth.Contact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
GovernanceResponse Recovery RedesignStrengthen the evaluation of national climate policy in order to know and improve its efficiency and effectiveness.Contact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
GovernanceResponse Recovery RedesignPromote the strengthening of the legal framework and institutional architecture among state and mucnipal goevrnments on the design, implementation, and evaluation of the impact of subnational local action.Contact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
Sustainable finance (public/private)/market mechanisms/carbon pricingResponse Recovery RedesignDevelop fiscal policies and economic instruments, together with other climate-related mechanisms.Reference https://www.gob.mx/cms/uploads/attachment/file/41978/Estrategia-Nacional-Cambio-Climatico-2013.pdfContact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
Sustainable finance (public/private)/market mechanisms/carbon pricingResponse Recovery RedesignMobilize diffenete sources of public and private fincial, from both national and international flows, to allow the implementation of mitigation and adaptation actions to comply with the NDC.Contact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
GovernanceResponse Recovery RedesignUpdated NDC of Mexico. Recognizing the importance of increasing the level of ambition and action to strengthen the efforts to attend to the challenges related to climate change, biodiversity loss, desertification, and pollution, Mexico presented the update of its National Determined Contribution during COP27. This document establishes adaptation and mitigation policies, strategies, and activities that need to be enhanced or developed to fulfill the Paris Agreement objectives.Contact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Mexico
OthersResponse Recovery RedesignAdoption of the following initiatives during COP27:
* Food and agriculture for sustainable transformation initiative (FAST)
* International Drought Resilience Alliance (IDRA)
* Initiative on climate action and nutrition (I-CAN)
* Friends of Cryosphere GroupReference FAST:https://cop27.eg/assets/files/initiatives/FAST-BR-01-EGY-10-22-EN.pdf
Friends of Cryosphere Group:https://iccinet.org/ambition-on-melting-ice/Contact Ministry of Agriculture, Mexico Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Mexico
4.Other environmental measures
Measures related to ecosystem services / biodiversity / land use / agricultureResponse Recovery RedesignPromote the conservation, protection, restoration, and sustainable use of their biodiversity with a territorial and human rights approach, considering biocultural regions. The main objective is to maintain functional ecosystems that are the basis of the population's well-being.Contact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
Waste management and Circular economy / sustainable production and consumptionResponse Recovery RedesignPromote an environment portectation of water, air and soil that allows the full exercise of the right to a healthy environment.Contact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
Other environmental pollution countermeasuresResponse Recovery RedesignStrengthen environmental governance through free, effective, meaningful, and co-responsible citizen participation in public policy decisions; ensure access to environmental justice with a territorial and human rights approach; and promotte environmental education and culture.Contact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
Waste management and Circular economy / sustainable production and consumptionResponse Recovery Redesign
Encourage change and innovation in the methods of production and consumption of goods and services, i to reduce the extraction of natural resources, the use of energy, and minimize the effects of human activities on the environment.Contact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
OthersResponse RecoveryStrengthen strategic cooperation and international leadership in the Latin American and Caribbean region by recognizing its high vulnerability to climate change, as well as its potential to mitigate GHG emissions.Reference https://www.gob.mx/cms/uploads/attachment/file/41978/Estrategia-Nacional-Cambio-Climatico-2013.pdfContact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
International cooperationResponse Recovery RedesignPromote compliance with international environmental commitments, and strengthen environmental work through international cooperation, including the active participation of citizensContact Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Mexico
GovernanceResponseNational Action Plan on Gender and Climate Change. This Plan includes actions and commitments by different actors aimed at including a gender perspective in national actions towards climate change mitigation and adaptation.Contact Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mexico
Capacity building and cooperationResponseOperation COP: Youth Ambassadors for Climate. Project designed in coordination with The Climate Reality Project and different institutions with the purpose of empowering and providing opportunities for youth to participate in climate negotiations.Reference Concept note- Operation COP 2022Contact Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mexico
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Burkina Faso
- Costa Rica
- El Salvador
- The European Commission
- The Marshall Islands
- The Netherlands
- New Zealand
- North Macedonia
- The Philippines
- Republic of Korea
- San Marino
- Sao Tome and Principe
- The United Kingdom